Title: The micro-design of hooked biological attachment mechanisms and soft robotics – a Biomimetic approach.
Hooked attachment mechanisms are a subset of all Biological Attachment Mechanisms and a useful starting position for experiments on the imaging of all biological attachment mechanisms such that they can be adopted in the engineering domain. A hook has an overhang which makes the imaging and transfer to .stl format a challenge, a test that once passed, allows for the further imaging of attachment mechanisms of all shapes and of differing materials. Confocal microscopy seems to have solved the issue so that it is now possible to move from the attachment mechanism directly to the finished model without user interference . Here, the work to-date is summarised, imaging cellulose and chitin hooks so that the process can move forward to other attachment devices of interest such as the mating parts of sexual organs in insects or other biological sub-structures that are not hooked. Progress is reported to have been made into the development of chitin nano-tubules so clearly there is hope that this work will yield a standard for mechanical attachment mechanisms of soft tissues or materials that can interact safely with human flesh with medical applications.
Keywords: hooks, probability, scaling effects, biomaterials.
This is a review article of the three papers published in the Springer-Open journal, “The Journal of Robotics and Biomimetics” in a special issue on nano-/micro-robotics under the following titles:
1. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms— Arctium minus part 1 
2. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms: imaging cellulose and chitin part 2 
3. Micro-design using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 
The title of part 3 above displays the underlying motive behind the exploration of the detail of papers 1 and 2. It accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al , over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures.  goes some way to describing this technology transfer.
The first view was that it was unsuitable to study with available technology. The decision was made to proceed with the use of a confocal microscope instead of light microscopy. Subsequently it has become possible only through the work of Hirt et al , by their work on a layered manufacturing device that can accept .tiff files as input and produce form. Now a hook can be manufactured at a 1:1 scale to the specimen that is to be reverse engineered and that means that designers are on the brink of being able to make things that are of use, in the micro-realm (of the order of 10-100 microns in size). It all began with the discovery that it was possible to image one of the hooked probabilistic fasteners under laser light, namely the cellulose hook of burdock (Arctium minus). Therefore the work continued with the chitinous growths of the bee and the grasshopper (Apis mellifera and Omocestus viridulus) tarsii . This encounter with luck was able to make true the theory that the use of the microscope could be for the imaging of a specimen and then the transfer of data directly to a layered manufacture device that was suitable, namely the work of Hirt et al. The point of this imaging was to use it to describe the group of probabilistic fasteners as a number, namely one for the hook, two for the attachment mechanism of the grasshopper O. viridulus with two hooks, and three for the double set of hooks, namely A. mellifera with a separating arolium, irrespective of component material.
The chance of being on top of a specimen structure available without travelling was immense, as these were all available at the University of Bath which is set in the countryside of Western England. Particularly the burdock which is used (apparently) as the basis of Velcro but it is concluded this is without fundament and it seemed better to use it than to use the others (see below), as it will be shown, for the production of a new hook, a multi-use flat structure of multiple hooks that could be used without being entirely known, as per its value and knowledge. i.e. if it is to be the one to be imitated then it needs to be studied more now so that it can be manufactured.
Figure 1: An Arctium minus (commonly known as burdock) fruit showing milli-metric scale. 
In Part 1 of the investigation , the cellulose hooks of burdock revealed a scaling effect  under loading. This is because the hook un-rolls as it is loaded until the radius of curvature is increased in size at fracture, in a similar manner in which a length of iron chain cannot be horizontally loaded until it is pulled straight without failing. The material is simply not as stiff as it would appear in the sketch of the structure for analytical purposes with its Newtonian assumptions and its properties vary under conditions, such as its state of dessication.
The reasons for this have been considered but not concluded as of yet, requiring further inspection of the material properties. All the natural cellulose hooks studied in the literature, Agrimonia eupatoria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium aparine, and Geum urbanum as well as Arctium minus, have been described in terms of their originating structures .
Table 1: Grouping the cellulose, probabilistic, frictional and long-shafted hooks according to originating structure.  and .
The cellular complexity obviously plays a part and from  the micro-fibril strengthening of the structure must play a part too, but this does not satisfy the Newtonian equations of static analysis used for hooks of a larger size. This is an exciting find since it suggests that there may be differing laws governing the behaviour of structures at this level other than standard analysis, rather in the way that the behaviour of fluids differ under different flow conditions  governed by the energy equation. Therefore the sense is that it is best to mimic the morphology exactly in order to yield optimal performance and maximum attachment strength when fastened, through fiction and mechanical attachment, bearing in mind that a hook must be paired with a substrate.
COPYRIGHT BRUCE E SAUNDERS 2020
Industry is by its very Nature not green, as we invest energy to create a form of order that is opposed to the natural thermodynamic qualities of the environment. So to look to Biomimetics for a green technological solution is a naive fallacy and inhibiting to the very science of biomimetics where there are rules and principles to be obeyed but they are not limited to the green solutions others seem to propose.
It is about the principles of chemistry and physics, not the policy of a politician. It is about the modelling of a system, not the shaping of a world, which must be in other people’s hands. Nature is about chaos, not process, self-assembly without apparent direction or control system, and does not serve the human race. If a biomimetic solution is found to nuclear waste disposal from power plants, would you call it “green”? Or would you call it chemistry? Or physics? Is a mutation green?
This is a fundamental that is misunderstood by most writers as they adopt populist theories in order to sell, not knowing the true value of it as they ignore avenues open to research in other fields that must prove that biomimetics is useful to mankind but not secular. It does not hold that Intelligent Design is about Nature. It is about perception.
A new definition of Biomimetics could be “the modelling of biological processes”. This is a coverall for all biomimetic processes witnessed in the laboratory as well as organic processes due to Nature.
The Biomimetic studies of flight and adhesion can be considered as two different systems for analysis, as a dynamic and a static system respectively. To reverse engineer flight we must take Nature into the laboratory and study it in a manner that may be transferred to the manufacturing shop floor. This means a methodology needs to be developed that reliably establishes the trends of flight and its parameters.
It is simple to understand that robotic flight will require robotic control and the use of actuators. Once we understand the pattern of movement, we can model this through Simulink(c) to produce an integrated circuit that will do what we want i.e. produce the motions of flight. All we need therefore is a high speed projection of a bee in flight, digitzing its wing flutter to mark changes in angle of attack and yawl etc.
Now that Hirt et al have shown it possible to produce structures of the order of size and shape of real instect tarsii in copper, it should be possible to begin the inspection of the surface interactions between small hooks and their substrates.
The underlying hypothesis behind the exploration of the detail of papers  and  accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al , over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. In other words all evolutionary models are all imperfect and so it is that the solution must indeed be imperfect too if it is to reflect the true nature of the Natural World i.e. testing is necessary before any firm conclusions can be reached. The use of the hook is a not very interesting thing, relatively. But it is also the ideal way to start with the designing of micro-sized (~100micron) objects because of the over-hangs of the hooks, which are of the minimal complexities to test the programmer and they can be assembled into machine-like components for manufacture. Their origins are a little too old for one to understand their development since the designs are based in evolutionary theory, which is utilised in order to identify which structures are viable and of suitable length and strength to be of use in the manufacture of computer components to attach to PCB’s (printed circuit boards).
With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used by the military to develop further and so it is about to be since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications.
It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a testrig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in . In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2  contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electrodeposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al  and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.
David Cameron wants revenge upon China for his days as Prime Minister so he gets together with Breakwell of Bath University and Stellenbosch home of Wouter Basson (Dr Death) of the biological weapons fame and they put together a plan, a conspiracy, where they plot to release it in China and bring the world to a stand stIll in preparation for the Second Coming. Boris Johnson’s son.
I have been invited to many. Here is one:
This is Alma, Program Coordinator of the WGC-2021. As I have tried to send you this invitation in last months but without any response from you, would you please give me a reply?
It is our great pleasure and privilege to welcome you to join the World Gene Convention-2021 (WGC-2021) conference, which will be held during May 17-19, 2021(next year) in Osaka, Japan. On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would be honored to invite you to be a chair/speaker while presenting about Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 … at the upcoming WGC-2021.
WGC had been successfully organized in Singapore, Macau, Shanghai, Qingdao in the last eight years. More than 3,000 famous experts and scholars from around the world have participated in our WGC. During previous conference, more than 300 speakers and 30+ poster attendees had presented their up-to-date research and made a fulfill communication on timely issues in the field of life science and biotechnology each year. Meanwhile, it has promoted the communication of colleagues and collaboration of partners in this field. With the kindly praise and suggestions from our participants, we are confident in organizing WGC-2021 which would be better and more successful!
Aiming to promote an international exchange of scientific knowledge and experience in the field of gene, life science, biotechnology and biopharmaceutical, the scientific program of WGC-2021 will include plenary/keynote lectures and session talks as well as poster presentations under 6 major themes, mainly focused on break throughs in gene, advances genomics & genetics, new research of DNA and RNA, focus on basic research, the frontier research of life sciences, new biotherapy discovery, emerging areas for medicine applications, robust technology development, and cutting-edge Biotechnology. We certainly believe that WGC-2021 will provide a variety of opportunities to exchange ideas and expertise as well as network with worldwide research groups.
We expect your precious comments or suggestions; also your reference to other speakers will be highly appreciated. We look forward to receiving your replies on the following questions:
1. What is the title of your speech?
2. Do you have any suggestions about our program?
For more detail of conference program https://www.bitcongress.com/wgc2021/
In addition to the amazing conference, you will benefit from the wonderful experience in Osaka, Japan. Joining in WGC-Japan 2021, you will experience mythical nature and culture of this most developed country in Asia, such as Mount Fuji, Shrines and Temples, Hot Springs, Kimono, Traditional Drama, and Amazing Food.
We sincerely wish you can accept our invitation and join us to contribute your invaluable experience and knowledge at this magnificent conference. Look forward to hearing from you soon!
Ms. Alma Yang
I am constructing this because I think there is a movie in my story. Some of the things that have gone on have been miraculous, from eureka moments to those of deep depression. This site is currently under construction and I hope to have it finished in two weeks time.
Have a look at the new site.
Contextualising my work on hooks, let me say that the end goal is to solve the age old question, how do insects walk on walls and windows and the ceiling? This is where future work lies, the near future. Current MEM technology exists only ion the form of micron thick layered structures, but soon we will be manufacturing structures at this scale.
My research gave rise to a product mimicking the burdock hook, but what really is of interest lies in the depths of part 2, the imaging of tarsii. If they weren’t so difficult to draw on solidworks I would be way ahead.
As you will see the blog is having a facelift. The subject matter remains the same but now I am applying more insight for you to show you what we can do now, or in the near future.
You will see I have written two new chapters so far, an introduction and a title chapter.
Thanks for you time
THIS SITE IS RECEIVING ATTENTION.
ON Tuesday I shall be the first of 23 presenters on my Ph.D. research at the Springer-Nature, LSE and Imperial College competition: “Falling Walls” with my presentation “Breaking the Walls of Microdesign”.
I am to be the first of the presenters so it should all be over for me by five past four. The winner gets a trip to Berlin for a finale presentation.
The competition is fierce with presenters coming from as far afield as Harvard. I shall be representing Bath University in spite of my checkered relationshhip with that institution.
For this reasopn this blog shall be changing over the next few days as work begins to prepare it for my presentation, getting it in order for academic scrutiny.
Wish me luck!
Exciting news friends!
My entry has just been accepted for the Springer-Nature competition on Breaking Walls of science.
It means I get to go to London on 1st October and record a three minute presentation for televising in the future. Prize is a trip to Berlin.