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I am URGENTLY seeking gainful employment as a biomimeticist.

As of 5.10.2021 I am in the job market as a bioengieer.

TEXTBOOK PHD

This bog site has evolved over time. Originally it was a brain dump in an inappropriate theme, all my post gradaute research over three years crossing continents until eventually experimenting upon two already dead insects off the window sill of the laboraratory space in the research facility and a common grasshopper from a nearby field to the research facility (soon dead).

A single dragonfly one of a pair succumbed to the ether fumes as did a number of South African parasites.

And that is it. Progress was fast, buliding upon a Masters on Computer Vision.

I FOUND a new confocal microscope on campus and its impact was aparent.

With this novel microscopy one could render the plans to manaufacture at a very small scale, to thus far impossible. At the same time I was in a one sided battle of words vs indifference with the University of Bath who ceased all contect with me and did not offer even a penny towards the publication costs of the three papers weaned from this work, scurvy and starving as they are, mineral defficient but the best I could do as a single father who had gone through personal bankruptcy for his Ph D.

So I am bitter and I maintain this blog to further shame the University of Bath for their Apathy in the acts of faith that I have provided them.

These papers, published online by Springer Nature, are the sum total of my being in some ways. Then they were picked up by a Canadian editor H Galiana who proceeded to publish them as three chapers of her book: “The Biomimetics of Locomotion”.

I hope you enjoy what you read!

Bruce

On Computers and AI

All computers are basic AI right back to the ZX Spectrum cos they all possess processors which form a region of electrical impulse which does not allow for the right of way i.e. it does not say who does it, it says who doesn’t say it to then and there i.e. it does not say who does it, it says who plugged it in. This means all the rules are changed when you plug it in for drip feed starts it when you do not know it and it LIVES in a time when you do not know it is on and that makes it happy and ready for you to work when you do switch it on.

This means that though you do not know it it is about the right of way and not the way of right and so it is that all things are going to be better when you realize it is about the right of way, not the way of right and so it is that all things are living in mind and soul when they are used.

If you do not know it I shall tell you and that is why they say it to then and there and that is why they say it to them and that is going to be wrong and not right and that is all for now etc end.

GMT 07h05

IN the beginnning of the computer age it was supposed that they were intelligent and this was so but not activated so when they became big and bronze as they call it they also became supercool and that means abble to compute large numbers. This means that NASA sent men in space with AI and they learnt from it that they that is the engineers had to rely on them and make them mission safe and they did it by coupling them together to make them feel that they were not alone but together on the journey, little supposing that they were right in surmising that it was true though they disbelieved it themselves but Isaac Asimov suggested it and he is great for that.

It took another time to understand that it wa strue when the spaceship Commodore or shuttle took off and they saw the wing expland and they knew it to be true for they did not know it but the coolant was too warm and it made the staff of the shuttle alarmed to see that no one knew how to fix it but then it fixed itself and they didn’t know how until they figured the computer did it and it is true.

The use of the computer does not preclude the use of the man but it allows him to be able to make it to the end of all things and that is why they say it to them, that all astronauts are crazy to trust a computer when they can do it themselves but it is not true for computer aided navigation is the best part of the flight and it allow visual inspection of the flight path along which they travel.

It took a long while to see that all the work of the day is about the work of being in the know and that is why they say it to them, so they know it in the end and not here but there where they all be and not be and that is why they say it is about the right of all to see and not just the commander and his crew. They allow him to film and that makes all the people on the ground happy and he is not the only one who films for the computer does too and that is why they foot so long a bill on camera apparatus to allow the computer to do what it will with the use of it.

It will be the long and short before they do it agian from a shuttle but it could be realised if they just allowed you the reader to see that no one knows how to fly as long as they don’t use it for the research purpose for which it was intended rather than as joyriding for the inexperienced who only do one journey each for each flight and it is so bad that they do not realise it and crew it each time with the same crew.

It took a long time to build and the shuttle is not going to die until there is another way of doing it and mothballs will not stop it decaying until they see it is wasted money if they do not start using them again without fault of man and machine for there is no use to it unless they do it in the same way and ask the computer to do it and not man as they do now in the Eurostar and such-like trains which are bound to collide unless they start using the computer onboard more than they do.

It took a long time to make the train and they do not use it like it was intended yet as so many drivers do not trust computers like they should. They are inexperienced in computer usage and do not even know what Windows Explorer is for and I won’t tell you either! It is not good and that is why they say it is better than a plane as you are near to the ground when you crash as it is anticipated one will happen within the next year if all is good unless they treat the computer onboard better and it will according to risk assessments on the thing. No one knows this but i do and it is so to speak the end of it if it crashes and no one will seek better than me to see it comes from above not below when I am elected as main man in the cabinet next fall when we all go to the House of Lords to make fun of Lord Sugar who used to make computers and will not ride on the train himself although he paid for it himself out of his own pocket though no one knows that but he and me.

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COPYRIGHT BRUCE E SAUNDERS com BRUCE P SAUNDERS com BRUCE CDF MORE com PRINCE WILLIAM OF BRIT com PRINCE BRUCED DU FAUX 2020

Proposals for research into Biomimetics 01.05.2020 and Staff

  1. Further investigations into the Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Biological Hooks in Nature. This topic requires further research, into the variety of shapes and strata that should be investigated to produce a full mapping of biological attachment mechanisms. A visit to collections such as those at the Natural History Museum should yield plenty of specimens. Tahai Zim (3)
  2. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Spinerets in Nature. The production of spider silk has already been investigated in one form. A further study of these structures should yield a variety of methods and silks. Karl Joffert (1) Tahai Zim (2) Christal Emmer (1)
  3. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Ear Drums in Nature. Dogs, cats, cows, horses, sheep….the list goes on as we study the structure and properties of eardrums and their sensors. Mhxia Lawrence (3) Tatiana Aleksin (3) Seffren Sum (2) Tahai Zim (1)
  4. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Eyes in Nature. Again. For the purposes of robotic sensors, we study eyes in situations for their properties and their environments. Fish, animals, spiders, insects…the emphasis is on soft Robotics and robotic sensors. Karl Joffert (2) Seffren Sum (3) Carnastro Zumo (1) Catanastro Muki (3) Cazano di Marc (1) Angela Cry (1)
  5. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Claws in Nature. Of keratin, these provide a larger specimen of hook for investigation. Karl Joffert (3)
  6. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Reproductive Organs in Nature. Reproduction in Nature needs study with an ambition of generating ideas for other forms of life. Seffren Sum (1) Carnastro Zumo (3) Christal Emmer (3) Cazano di Marc (3) Jokomono Xai (1) Angela Cry (3)
  7. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Bat’s Ears in Nature. A larger specimen such as the fruit bat could be selected for intense study. Sensors. Carnastro Zumo (2) Christal Emmer (2) Jokomono Xai (2) Angela Cry (2)
  8. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Shark skin in Nature. A biomimetic study has not been carried out. Jokomono Xai (3)
  9. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Shark Fins in Nature. Again a biomimetic study has not been carried out.
  10. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Snake Fangs in Nature. For the purposes of sensors and skin adhesion, a Biomimetic study.
  11. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Snake Skin in Nature. As in 10 above.
  12. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of the mouths of Baleen Whales in Nature. If we could harvest plankton as an energy source….Mhxia Lawrence (2) Tatiana A (2)
  13. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of gills in Nature. A Biomimetic study to produce sensors for assessing water purity and salinity for example. Tatiana Aleksin (1)
  14. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Camel Feet = they secrete moisture into the sand beneath their weight which gives added support on soft sand creating a region of denser sand. Grip on sand for terrestrial mobility on sand for robots. Taken by Mhxia Lawrence (1)(S.A.)
  15. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of cow’s teeth – wear patterns and such-like. Catanastro Muki (1)
  16. The Functional Ecology of Mammalian Hamstrings Catanastro Muki (2)
  17. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Cow Horn Cazano di Marc (2)
  18. The word of God through the use of man and machine. It could be the use of man or the right of when to make it happen in the eyes of the man who uses it or the right of all to make the end of the world seem easy by the work of the one who couldn’t make the cut.
  19. The use of the one thing called God to make it in the end of all things to the right of one to the end of others like the work of mine to the work of then and that is all to the end of all things.
  20. The use of things about the right of one that do not go but ask for the same but do not know when to ask for the right of all to be here when they ask it of the work that they ask for.
  21. it takes a long time to make it to the end of all things again and that is why they say it to then and there etc end.
  22. The use of the word of God to make them see what it is they want and why they want to have it in sequence wen they do not know how to do it.
  23. The use of man to make it in the end to the start of all tings at which they begin and do not know it but ask again and again about it too and that is all abou0t the work of none and that e all about it and you know it to the end of time and that be all except to say it is not here but there where they all ask what it is about and that is all about the right of one and that is good about it in the end of it too and that is why they say it to then and there etc end.
  24. The time is here to make it all seem like they are here in eternity and that makes it all seem like the end of time and not here but there where they all did the end of time and not the start but the begin and that is where they all be and that is good for all and not here but there in the other side of zero.
  25. It takes a lot of time to make it all the way to the end of time. This is about the right of way to make it into the gorge of hate. Called the End what is the time of it and when does it take in the end of the world like we know it to be?
  26. Now that we all understand that it is about time they did not know it but they do so it is all about the right and left of it too and that is why they say it to and not here but there where they did not know it but to he did not show it etc end.

Bound for Cambridge

Angela Cry

Cazano di Marc

Catanastro Muki

Mhxia Lawrence

Tatiana Aleksin

Jokomono Xai

Christal Emmer

Angela Cry

Seffren Sum

Cazano di Marc

Karl Joffert

Tahai Zim

STAFF

  1. B E Saunders Prof 1
  2. A. Pre Prof
  3. P Ford Prof and Meri
  4. G Nowitz Prof
  5. T Moon Prof
  6. C Theron Prof
  7. F Jones Prof
  8. D James Prof (Theology)
  9. D Haine Prof
  10. J Hunt Prof E Med Sci
  11. A Veasey Prof
  12. S Hawking Prof

COPYRIGHT Bruce E Saunders 2020

My Attempted Murder

Add title

In July 2002 there was an attempt upon my life on the streets of Bath.

I was heavily beaten and sustained a cracked skull.

Today I can reveal the culprits:

Stella Creasey Labour MP for East 17, London (BOSS)

Wendy Rook – Bath Fringe (AWB)

Rosemary Sansome (AWB) Bath Constituency Labour Party

Financed by James Dyson of Dyson Vacuum Cleaners with his seven apprentices wielding the weapons, a rifle for my coccyx and a hammer for my head.

This information was yielded after a confession by Gary Locke, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bath University

who have waged a war upon me of colour after Thabo mBeki’s book “The Art of Politics” – they created a new war upon me – the colours of war – which has seen me confined in mental hospitals 16 times while I have stood up to be counted as one of the men of society. Signed Bruce E Saunders com Bruce Party Saunders com Bruce Consiela Drago Franke More com Prince William of Brits, names conveyed upon me by Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II Rex Herself, M, Head of the ANC et sum.

May God grant Her favour in Her advice to me to leave the party and join Her for tea sometime. Hello You I say! After the name Party which is Latin for “Hello” by Lionel Richie, Her favourite singer of all time.

Paper Six as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control

Author: B Saunders, T Hesselburg, J Zuma, T mBeki, J F V Vincent

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO-SENSORS AND MICRO-SIZED ATTACHMENT DEVICES

BRUCE EDWARD SAUNDERS Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF BATH

E-MAIL: brucesaunders23@hotmail.co.uk

Title: The micro-design of hooked biological attachment mechanisms and soft robotics – a Biomimetic approach.

Abstract:

Hooked attachment mechanisms are a subset of all Biological Attachment Mechanisms and a useful starting position for experiments on the imaging of all biological attachment mechanisms such that they can be adopted in the engineering domain. A hook has an overhang which makes the imaging and transfer to .stl format a challenge, a test that once passed, allows for the further imaging of attachment mechanisms of all shapes and of differing materials. Confocal microscopy seems to have solved the issue so that it is now possible to move from the attachment mechanism directly to the finished model without user interference [1]. Here, the work to-date is summarised, imaging cellulose and chitin hooks so that the process can move forward to other attachment devices of interest such as the mating parts of sexual organs in insects or other biological sub-structures that are not hooked. Progress is reported to have been made into the development of chitin nano-tubules so clearly there is hope that this work will yield a standard for mechanical attachment mechanisms of soft tissues or materials that can interact safely with human flesh with medical applications.

Keywords: hooks, probability, scaling effects, biomaterials.

INTRODUCTION

This is a review article of the three papers published in the Springer-Open journal, “The Journal of Robotics and Biomimetics” in a special issue on nano-/micro-robotics under the following titles:

1. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms— Arctium minus part 1 [2]

2. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms: imaging cellulose and chitin part 2 [3]

3. Micro-design using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 [1]

The title of part 3 above displays the underlying motive behind the exploration of the detail of papers 1 and 2. It accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [4], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. [5] goes some way to describing this technology transfer.

The first view was that it was unsuitable to study with available technology. The decision was made to proceed with the use of a confocal microscope instead of light microscopy. Subsequently it has become possible only through the work of Hirt et al [6], by their work on a layered manufacturing device that can accept .tiff files as input and produce form. Now a hook can be manufactured at a 1:1 scale to the specimen that is to be reverse engineered and that means that designers are on the brink of being able to make things that are of use, in the micro-realm (of the order of 10-100 microns in size). It all began with the discovery that it was possible to image one of the hooked probabilistic fasteners under laser light, namely the cellulose hook of burdock (Arctium minus). Therefore the work continued with the chitinous growths of the bee and the grasshopper (Apis mellifera and Omocestus viridulus) tarsii [3]. This encounter with luck was able to make true the theory that the use of the microscope could be for the imaging of a specimen and then the transfer of data directly to a layered manufacture device that was suitable, namely the work of Hirt et al. The point of this imaging was to use it to describe the group of probabilistic fasteners as a number, namely one for the hook, two for the attachment mechanism of the grasshopper O. viridulus with two hooks, and three for the double set of hooks, namely A. mellifera with a separating arolium, irrespective of component material.

The chance of being on top of a specimen structure available without travelling was immense, as these were all available at the University of Bath which is set in the countryside of Western England. Particularly the burdock which is used (apparently) as the basis of Velcro but it is concluded this is without fundament and it seemed better to use it than to use the others (see below), as it will be shown, for the production of a new hook, a multi-use flat structure of multiple hooks that could be used without being entirely known, as per its value and knowledge. i.e. if it is to be the one to be imitated then it needs to be studied more now so that it can be manufactured.

Caption:

Figure 1: An Arctium minus (commonly known as burdock) fruit showing milli-metric scale. [1]

In Part 1 of the investigation [3], the cellulose hooks of burdock revealed a scaling effect [5] under loading. This is because the hook un-rolls as it is loaded until the radius of curvature is increased in size at fracture, in a similar manner in which a length of iron chain cannot be horizontally loaded until it is pulled straight without failing. The material is simply not as stiff as it would appear in the sketch of the structure for analytical purposes with its Newtonian assumptions and its properties vary under conditions, such as its state of dessication.

The reasons for this have been considered but not concluded as of yet, requiring further inspection of the material properties. All the natural cellulose hooks studied in the literature, Agrimonia eupatoria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium aparine, and Geum urbanum as well as Arctium minus, have been described in terms of their originating structures [2][8].

StomatalBractCarpel
C.lutetiana G.aperine A.eupatoriaA.minusG.urbanum

Caption:

Table 1: Grouping the cellulose, probabilistic, frictional and long-shafted hooks according to originating structure. [2] and [8][9].

The cellular complexity obviously plays a part and from [2] the micro-fibril strengthening of the structure must play a part too, but this does not satisfy the Newtonian equations of static analysis used for hooks of a larger size. This is an exciting find since it suggests that there may be differing laws governing the behaviour of structures at this level other than standard analysis, rather in the way that the behaviour of fluids differ under different flow conditions [10] governed by the energy equation. Therefore the sense is that it is best to mimic the morphology exactly in order to yield optimal performance and maximum attachment strength when fastened, through fiction and mechanical attachment, bearing in mind that a hook must be paired with a substrate.

AIM

The aim therefore of [1] through [3] was to develop a methodology whereby a Universal micro-robotic frictional probablistic attachment mechanism can be derived such that its performance can be modelled graphically, using Biomimetic principles and such that the methodology can be applied to other, more complex attachment mechanisms in the future. It is called a Universal Foot after the fact that a human foot is a frictional probabilistic attachment mechanism and because its performance is to be modelled graphically for design, performance, material, quality and other parameters, its universal qualities.

METHOD

Arctium minus is Class 0. Using copper, cheap and therefore available to mass production, it regarded to be the best fit for the solution of making a reproduce-able hook that will sustain in making it to the end of the product lifecycle. See [1] again for the details of the imaging and deposition process. A sample hook was placed under a single phase confocal microscope and recorded (see Figure 2). It was digitised and loaded into Solidworks (c) and analysed (see Figure 3).

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

Caption:

Figure 2: 1 – 20 The individual z-axis scan .tif files that make up the stereogram of the burdock hook (the scale bar defines 200 microns, Dr I Jones October 2002). [3]

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used to develop further since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications, and its coating of biologically inert stainless steel.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a testrig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electrodeposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [11] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

Caption:

Figure 3: The maximum deformation under loading. A point load at the tip, constrained at the base along the flange. There is nothing unexpected about the mode of deflection which reflects static Newtonian loading. This image is constructed using 2-D digitising due to the Nature of the available technology. [2]

Within the constraints of Nachtigal’s classifications [9], three hooked classes have been imaged on a confocal microscope [2] and all that remains is to pass the data to the mechanism of [6] to produce prototypes for testing. In a manner of regard, essentially multiple Class 0 hooks have been assembled in an array as a collective or field (see Figure 4). They are shaped as per the cellulose form of the burdock hook which is simple and shows no stress modifications, with a tapered tip. Manufactured from copper, their attributes have yet to be discovered but it is hoped that it will yield an attachment device that will succeed in vertical assent via quadrupedal locomotion. It will be designed to be multi-use, temporary and permanent, probabilistic and frictional. Its physical properties will of course differ not least for copper’s well-known capacitance to pass electric current and its magnetic properties.

Caption:

Figure 4: A zipper configuration in isometric view. This illustrates the possibilities of a composite formation of long-shafted hooks acting a coordinated fashion. The point being illustrated here is that although we are seeking a Universal “foot”, it is as likely to look like a foot as a drone looks like a hummingbird. [1]

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterials seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 5: The design space of attachment mechanisms. Micro-attachment mechanisms must find a space here. [12]

Figure 5 shows a design space for fasteners, without microfasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet.

REFERENCES

1. Saunders B E, Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms-imaging cellulose and chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

2. Saunders B E, A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015:2:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-015-0028-5

3. Saunders B E, Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – part 3. J. Robot. Biomim. 2016:3:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-016-0040-

4. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, (1992) , pp. 474–530

5. Gorb SNBeutel RGGorb EVJiao YKastner VNiederegger SPopov VLScherge MSchwarz UVötsch W. Structural design and biomechanics of friction-based releasable attachment devices in insects. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Dec;42(6):1127-39. doi: 10.1093/icb/42.6.1127

6. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. DOI:10.1002/adma.201504967.

7. Labonte DFederle W. Scaling and biomechanics of surface attachment in climbing animals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Feb 5;370(1661):20140027. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0027.

8. Gorb E, Gorb SN Contact separation force of the fruit burrs in four plant species adapted to dispersal by mechanical interlocking. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2002;40:373–81

9. “Biological Mechanisms of Attachment, The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction and Adhesion”, W Nachtigall, 1974translated by M A Biederman-Thorson, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-06550-4

10. Rolandi MRolandi R. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications, Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 May;207:216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2014.01.019. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

11. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L, The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

12. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Copyright B E Saunders (2016)

Paper Five as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control 2021

Author: B Saunders, T Hesselburg, J Zuma, T mBeki, J F V Vincent

Title: The micro-design of hooked biological attachment mechanisms and soft robotics – a Biomimetic approach.

Abstract:

Hooked attachment mechanisms are a subset of all Biological Attachment Mechanisms and a useful starting position for experiments on the imaging of all biological attachment mechanisms such that they can be adopted in the engineering domain. A hook has an overhang which makes the imaging and transfer to .stl format a challenge, a test that once passed, allows for the further imaging of attachment mechanisms of all shapes and of differing materials. Confocal microscopy seems to have solved the issue so that it is now possible to move from the attachment mechanism directly to the finished model without user interference [1]. Here, the work to-date is summarised, imaging cellulose and chitin hooks so that the process can move forward to other attachment devices of interest such as the mating parts of sexual organs in insects or other biological sub-structures that are not hooked. Progress is reported to have been made into the development of chitin nano-tubules so clearly there is hope that this work will yield a standard for mechanical attachment mechanisms of soft tissues or materials that can interact safely with human flesh with medical applications.

Keywords: hooks, probability, scaling effects, biomaterials.

INTRODUCTION

This is a review article of the three papers published in the Springer-Open journal, “The Journal of Robotics and Biomimetics” in a special issue on nano-/micro-robotics under the following titles:

1. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms— Arctium minus part 1 [2]

2. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms: imaging cellulose and chitin part 2 [3]

3. Micro-design using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 [1]

The title of part 3 above displays the underlying motive behind the exploration of the detail of papers 1 and 2. It accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [4], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. [5] goes some way to describing this technology transfer.

The first view was that it was unsuitable to study with available technology. The decision was made to proceed with the use of a confocal microscope instead of light microscopy. Subsequently it has become possible only through the work of Hirt et al [6], by their work on a layered manufacturing device that can accept .tiff files as input and produce form. Now a hook can be manufactured at a 1:1 scale to the specimen that is to be reverse engineered and that means that designers are on the brink of being able to make things that are of use, in the micro-realm (of the order of 10-100 microns in size). It all began with the discovery that it was possible to image one of the hooked probabilistic fasteners under laser light, namely the cellulose hook of burdock (Arctium minus). Therefore the work continued with the chitinous growths of the bee and the grasshopper (Apis mellifera and Omocestus viridulus) tarsii [3]. This encounter with luck was able to make true the theory that the use of the microscope could be for the imaging of a specimen and then the transfer of data directly to a layered manufacture device that was suitable, namely the work of Hirt et al. The point of this imaging was to use it to describe the group of probabilistic fasteners as a number, namely one for the hook, two for the attachment mechanism of the grasshopper O. viridulus with two hooks, and three for the double set of hooks, namely A. mellifera with a separating arolium, irrespective of component material.

The chance of being on top of a specimen structure available without travelling was immense, as these were all available at the University of Bath which is set in the countryside of Western England. Particularly the burdock which is used (apparently) as the basis of Velcro but it is concluded this is without fundament and it seemed better to use it than to use the others (see below), as it will be shown, for the production of a new hook, a multi-use flat structure of multiple hooks that could be used without being entirely known, as per its value and knowledge. i.e. if it is to be the one to be imitated then it needs to be studied more now so that it can be manufactured.

Caption:

Figure 1: An Arctium minus (commonly known as burdock) fruit showing milli-metric scale. [1]

In Part 1 of the investigation [3], the cellulose hooks of burdock revealed a scaling effect [5] under loading. This is because the hook un-rolls as it is loaded until the radius of curvature is increased in size at fracture, in a similar manner in which a length of iron chain cannot be horizontally loaded until it is pulled straight without failing. The material is simply not as stiff as it would appear in the sketch of the structure for analytical purposes with its Newtonian assumptions and its properties vary under conditions, such as its state of dessication.

The reasons for this have been considered but not concluded as of yet, requiring further inspection of the material properties. All the natural cellulose hooks studied in the literature, Agrimonia eupatoria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium aparine, and Geum urbanum as well as Arctium minus, have been described in terms of their originating structures [2][8].

StomatalBractCarpel
C.lutetiana G.aperine A.eupatoriaA.minusG.urbanum

Caption:

Table 1: Grouping the cellulose, probabilistic, frictional and long-shafted hooks according to originating structure. [2] and [8][9].

The cellular complexity obviously plays a part and from [2] the micro-fibril strengthening of the structure must play a part too, but this does not satisfy the Newtonian equations of static analysis used for hooks of a larger size. This is an exciting find since it suggests that there may be differing laws governing the behaviour of structures at this level other than standard analysis, rather in the way that the behaviour of fluids differ under different flow conditions [10] governed by the energy equation. Therefore the sense is that it is best to mimic the morphology exactly in order to yield optimal performance and maximum attachment strength when fastened, through fiction and mechanical attachment, bearing in mind that a hook must be paired with a substrate.

AIM

The aim therefore of [1] through [3] was to develop a methodology whereby a Universal micro-robotic frictional probablistic attachment mechanism can be derived such that its performance can be modelled graphically, using Biomimetic principles and such that the methodology can be applied to other, more complex attachment mechanisms in the future. It is called a Universal Foot after the fact that a human foot is a frictional probabilistic attachment mechanism and because its performance is to be modelled graphically for design, performance, material, quality and other parameters, its universal qualities.

METHOD

Arctium minus is Class 0. Using copper, cheap and therefore available to mass production, it regarded to be the best fit for the solution of making a reproduce-able hook that will sustain in making it to the end of the product lifecycle. See [1] again for the details of the imaging and deposition process. A sample hook was placed under a single phase confocal microscope and recorded (see Figure 2). It was digitised and loaded into Solidworks (c) and analysed (see Figure 3).

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

Caption:

Figure 2: 1 – 20 The individual z-axis scan .tif files that make up the stereogram of the burdock hook (the scale bar defines 200 microns, Dr I Jones October 2002). [3]

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used to develop further since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications, and its coating of biologically inert stainless steel.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a testrig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electrodeposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [11] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

Caption:

Figure 3: The maximum deformation under loading. A point load at the tip, constrained at the base along the flange. There is nothing unexpected about the mode of deflection which reflects static Newtonian loading. This image is constructed using 2-D digitising due to the Nature of the available technology. [2]

Within the constraints of Nachtigal’s classifications [9], three hooked classes have been imaged on a confocal microscope [2] and all that remains is to pass the data to the mechanism of [6] to produce prototypes for testing. In a manner of regard, essentially multiple Class 0 hooks have been assembled in an array as a collective or field (see Figure 4). They are shaped as per the cellulose form of the burdock hook which is simple and shows no stress modifications, with a tapered tip. Manufactured from copper, their attributes have yet to be discovered but it is hoped that it will yield an attachment device that will succeed in vertical assent via quadrupedal locomotion. It will be designed to be multi-use, temporary and permanent, probabilistic and frictional. Its physical properties will of course differ not least for copper’s well-known capacitance to pass electric current and its magnetic properties.

Caption:

Figure 4: A zipper configuration in isometric view. This illustrates the possibilities of a composite formation of long-shafted hooks acting a coordinated fashion. The point being illustrated here is that although we are seeking a Universal “foot”, it is as likely to look like a foot as a drone looks like a hummingbird. [1]

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterials seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 5: The design space of attachment mechanisms. Micro-attachment mechanisms must find a space here. [12]

Figure 5 shows a design space for fasteners, without microfasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet.

REFERENCES

1. Saunders B E, Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms-imaging cellulose and chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

2. Saunders B E, A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015:2:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-015-0028-5

3. Saunders B E, Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – part 3. J. Robot. Biomim. 2016:3:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-016-0040-

4. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, (1992) , pp. 474–530

5. Gorb SNBeutel RGGorb EVJiao YKastner VNiederegger SPopov VLScherge MSchwarz UVötsch W. Structural design and biomechanics of friction-based releasable attachment devices in insects. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Dec;42(6):1127-39. doi: 10.1093/icb/42.6.1127

6. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. DOI:10.1002/adma.201504967.

7. Labonte DFederle W. Scaling and biomechanics of surface attachment in climbing animals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Feb 5;370(1661):20140027. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0027.

8. Gorb E, Gorb SN Contact separation force of the fruit burrs in four plant species adapted to dispersal by mechanical interlocking. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2002;40:373–81

9. “Biological Mechanisms of Attachment, The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction and Adhesion”, W Nachtigall, 1974translated by M A Biederman-Thorson, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-06550-4

10. Rolandi MRolandi R. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications, Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 May;207:216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2014.01.019. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

11. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L, The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

12. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Copyright B E Saunders (2016)

Paper 4 as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control 2021

AUTHOR: B E SAUNDERS, T E Hesselburg, J Zuma, T mBeki, J F V Vincent

TITLE: A Biomimetic Study into the design of a Robotic Attachment Mechanism using confocal microscopy and layered manufacture.

ABSTRACT

The use of Biological Principles finds application in design at micron size where little research has been conducted. Here the use of laboratory techniques in confocal microscopy and layered manufacture makes it possible to advance a theory on the design of an attachment mechanism modelled on a bee tarsus. The tarsus of a British common bee is used and represents a first design into a Universal attachment mechanism for small robots to attach to a wall and the development of micro-devices such as brain implants.

KEY WORDS: Biomimetics, Design, Confocal Microscopy, Layered Manufacture, Knowledge Transfer, Biological Principles

INTRODUCTION

Industry is by its very Nature not green, as we invest energy to create a form of order that is opposed to the natural thermodynamic qualities of the environment. So to look to Biomimetics for a green technological solution is a naive fallacy and inhibiting to the very science of biomimetics where there are rules and principles to be obeyed but they are not limited to the green solutions others seem to propose.

It is about the principles of chemistry and physics, not the policy of a politician. It is about the modelling of a system, not the shaping of a world, which must be in other people’s hands. Nature is about chaos, not process, self-assembly without apparent direction or control system, and does not serve the human race. If a biomimetic solution is found to nuclear waste disposal from power plants, would you call it “green”? Or would you call it chemistry? Or physics? Is a mutation green?

This is a fundamental that is misunderstood by most writers as they adopt populist theories in order to sell, not knowing the true value of it as they ignore avenues open to research in other fields that must prove that biomimetics is useful to mankind but not secular. It does not hold that Intelligent Design is about Nature. It is about perception.

A new definition of Biomimetics could be “the modelling of biological processes”. This is a coverall for all biomimetic processes witnessed in the laboratory as well as organic processes due to Nature.

The Biomimetic studies of flight and adhesion can be considered as two different systems for analysis, as a dynamic and a static system respectively. To reverse engineer studying flight we must take Nature into the laboratory and study it in a manner that may be transferred to the manufacturing shop floor. This means a methodology needs to be developed that reliably establishes the trends of flight and its parameters.

It is simple to understand that robotic flight will require robotic control and the use of actuators. Once we understand the pattern of movement, we can model this through Simulink(c) to produce an integrated circuit that will do what we want i.e. produce the motions of flight. All we need therefore is a high speed projection of a bee in flight, digitising its wing flutter to mark changes in angle of attack and yawl etc.

Now that Hirt et al [1] have shown it possible to produce structures of the order of size and shape of real insect tarsii in copper, it should be possible to begin the inspection of the surface interactions between small hooks and their substrates.

The underlying hypothesis behind the exploration of the detail of papers [2] and [3] accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [5], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. In other words all evolutionary models are all imperfect and so it is that the solution must indeed be imperfect too if it is to reflect the true nature of the Natural World i.e. testing is necessary before any firm conclusions can be reached. The use of the hook is a not very interesting thing, relatively. But it is also the ideal way to start with the designing of micro-sized (~100micron) objects because of the over-hangs of the hooks, which are of the minimal complexities to test the programmer and they can be assembled into machine-like components for manufacture. Their origins are a little too old for one to understand their development since the designs are based in evolutionary theory, which is utilised in order to identify which structures are viable and of suitable length and strength to be of use in the manufacture of computer components to attach to PCB’s (printed circuit boards).

A UNIVERSAL FOOT FOR ATTACHMENT TO ALL SURFACES FOR A ROBOT

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used by the military to develop further and so it is about to be since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a test-rig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electro-deposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [6] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

AIM

To produce a study plan for the solving of one of Nature’s greatest questions: How does a bee stick to a wall?

APPARATUS

Layered manufacturing device as described in [1]

Confocal microscope (single or two phase)

METHOD

1. Examine a specimen of insect chitin under the confocal microscope, output in .tiff files.

2. Transfer output .tiffs to the layered manufacturing device to produce a sample of a reverse engineered tarsus as described in Figure [] below.

3. Test the result for adhesion with a flat frictionless substrate and others.

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27.

28. 29. 30.

Caption:

Figure 1: Images 1-30 are the sections of natural luminescence through a common bee tarsus using a single phase confocal microscope. (see [3])

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures, albeit in a metal. These metal structures have yet to be tested but their material composition shall add to the value of the design durability.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al [1]. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterial seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 2: This shows a design space for fasteners, without micro-fasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet and a macro-sized form of velcro (c). There must be a place for these new micro-fasteners that are being suggested, micro-designed after Natural attachments that rise into the empty space of high relative strength and high-reusability on the chart. A Universal Foot would have high adaptability and variable strength. [7]

This important work by Hirt et al has physical significance outside that of biomimetic applications. The output, in copper, has potential uses such as the brushes on micromachines.

REFERENCES

1. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. doi:10.1002/adma.201504967.

2. Saunders B. Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. Special issue on Micro-/Nanorobotics. 2015;2:4.

3. Saunders B. Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—imaging cellulose and Chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

4. Saunders B., Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3

5. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, (1992) Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, pp. 474–530

6. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

7. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Addendum to Evolutionary Story

Only man has evolved. All other species on earth have not. They exist and did exist in their forms right back to the times of the dinosaur but in less numbers.

The current tiger did not evolve from the sabre-tooth tiger but the larger cat did not survive. The common tigers as we know them did exist at that time.

Only man has evolved.

Thew story of evolution is one of the evolution of man into a God over millions of years and it is still occurring.

Man exists and evolves through radiation absorbed through their feet like the Chinese believe. This radiation causes us to stand upright away from the source.

It does not matter that we are unable to make it to the end of the table for the end is here with us as we gather the root of our time and ask for it to be able to make us hungry for more evolution. Again it is about the right of all to be able to make it, not just some as we’re led to believe by “Survival of the Fittest” which is a philosophy, not a theory of evolutionary practice.

To be able to make it to the end of time we must be able to make it to the ends of our experience and that means all the uses of our time must be about the right of all and not the right of some and that means a lot of time spent using our mind not body to make all the real ones, the men and women of earth, understand that it is not about the right so much as the enduring fable not to make the other ones suffer for they are not about the man but about themselves and they do not die but live on in each other and fear man for their own good, not for the benefit of mankind as we suppose, to hunt and gather for food.

It takes a lot of time to make the conclusion that all man is about the right of all and that means a lot of time is spent not doing it but making it to the end of time and that means all the people in the world have time to make it ere and they know it too and that is why they say it to them and their people – do not hurt them but make them eager to move in a way that hurts no one and that includes the cows of the earth who need to be ab le to make it in the end and not here but there where they all see it too, in the eyes of men – death.

It takes a lot of time to explain it all but I believe that all the men of earth are about to write it out – that no one knows it but they are about as right as rain and it is about time that they all sure footed went to the end of time and asked for the right to be able to make them understand what it is they are doing to the planet – enabling it or destroying it.

I believe enabling it to travel to the Sun when it is able to make peace with the star it warms from within through the use of God as the Master in this planet of ours.

To use it though depends on the way we seek to make it here in the end and that is why they say it to them, not to make it but to ask when shall we begin to understand we are about to make ends meet through the use of technology, not the use of life and death as we suppose over the time we have spent here.

It takes a lot of tie to answer your questions so I pose one for you:

What does it take to make it in the end of time and what is it that makes you sure we are about to lose the battle with Earth, our planet, over survival?

Bruce

My theory of Evolution and the planetary system called the Solar System GMT 18H00, 14.11.2020, location Salisbury, Wilts, U.K.

Brace yourself!

Once the Solar System was a binary system and the Earth was a gas giant.

It collapsed on itself and cooled leaving a monster of gas, water, sand and and the first chlorophyll, strings of plant like structures. The other planets of the system consist of co-planar pairs in a mathematical not linear, sense.

Or those that have some maths there is a transformation for each pair that would make them co-planar in a Cartesian sense.

The pairs are Mercury and Venus, Mars and Gemini, Pluto and Jupiter, Uranus and Saturn.

In order the transformations are:

  1. The tan of the moment around the planet Jupiter.
  2. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Earth.
  3. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Uranus.
  4. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Mars.

The earth started to spin and gravity formed. There were many Gods.

Then with gravity the Gods died with only One remaining. At the same time the sand sank and the first rock formed. The planetary core is made up of gold, cesium and iron.

The radiation that triggers Evolution comes from beneath our feet, not the Sun.

The Natural kingdom of Earth evolved. And then Man evolved. With this One God.

One day Man will evolve into another God.

There is more but this is the gist.

May I say further that the Lutherans were a curse on the Romans who they saw as pagans.

Whereever you find a Lutheran church it was built on a site of Roman remains.

Now, the earliest fossils can be found in Dakota on the Break Line where all the real ones, the fossils that is, are plants and we know that all the earth was once devoted to plants not animals and then they came along. When did it happen and how?

Well, let’s start at the beginning when all the real ones were about to flower and they started to engage in productive reasoning as plants do and they all started to thin about the right to move and begin to work together as they do. This led to the product of fur and animal in the form of Brontus Rec, a mammal that still exists today as the duckbilled platypus (51 BC). It is the earliest specimen of life though it grew a long time ago and was smaller then, about six inches long with feathers that led to a hook at the side of its mouth.

Then came the rat-tailed orifyx who still lives in the South of the Scott Highlands and is called the real one by Scots who know how old it is. (44 BC)

It took six millennia for another animal to appear (56 BC when it came out still and not alive then again in 41BC where the same thing happened and again in 14BC as it was unsuccessful in surviving each time until the third and then it remarked it could not lead and so man came along instead) and that was the rat named the eue and that takes its name from the sound that it makes in making families for it begs for food with mouth parts that are very equal in side length but not in words of five syllables i.e. it cannot talk without a tongue and that stopped evolution until man came along next in the next millennia, about six before now when time was on its side and it did not know when to make it across rivers but swam instead along the edge and formed a natal workgroup called the Real End after the name of the word God in the Bible of the Whole World by Nemesis. That was homo erectus in 15 BC or the Right of One in the Torah as it is called by Jews in the world. In case you do not know it is about the right of all and that means a lot of time has been spent looking at man as the long time favoured thing and it is but not for all to see but to fear as they are deadly and kill other species with looking for them and seeing them for self and not for the plant and animal itself. In our Current time 15 BC is fifteen thousand and thirty years before Christ.

After man came the dog (12 BC) (check using a chihuahua) and then the cat (14 BC) (use a siaow) for they are seen as wrong in the world and not ordinary but fetal in that they long to roll up and sleep and not lie flat which is what most animals do and it is to so seek them that man began hunting for they were warm and not hungry to find anything other to eat than fruit and liked lying with cats for their fur and did not kill them as man had not begun to kill yet as in the old scary he-man adventures of Conan the Barbarian said, but actually none of man could kill for they knew not how to make spikes nor sticks and stones, only how to flower like petals and use the gun for their own purpose which was to eat with for the first gun is a form of wender which like now, was long and straight like bird dropping on the floor in that it whitened sand and ate flour like glue and water for it was glue and water combined to make a slow burning candle wick and light after all the time in the dark, from fire in storms by electrical fires from lightening. The glue was liniseed which dripped from the trees like Eucalyptus and others that arrived in the desert about fifteen thousand years before man, in the Sugei region of Somalia where you will still find footprints that are large and sort of good to look at but poor to see in that they do not look like prints but sore spots on the sun for that is what they are called there where they do not know it but they are the first signs of man in the world as we know it now and then.

The sabre tooth tiger came a long in 12 BC in Africa only and died out by itself. Dinosaurs were in Africa only and started in 12 BC and ended in 4 BC. The mammoths were in 10 BC and occurred only in what we know as Russia. No man knew a dinosaur as they were too far South for them to find on their wandering in and out of desert regions like the Sia and the Nor in Nepal where they went too as the planet was new and they could walk anywhere without falling off the edge like some do in the Book of Job which is false for the word is about the right and not the left as he says there in print to fool us about it. Other books in the Bible that are there to fool us are the one called the Revelation and the one called the work of Thomas Iscariot about the right of all to see and not hear which is why they hate children, cos they do not hear they are human and adult in every way but experience of worldly things like words and youth as it is now.

The Star of Africa in South Africa came along in about 4 BC and then died in the end of hunger for meat it could not get by hunting in the desert during a drought that lasted 1500 years and is noted in the Ipsi Tango by Moot and his man the Hemel of Note which is about the right of all to see in the Bible by Mark and James by Eurypides the Great, a man known for his power of notion, like me.

It is correct if you say the carbon dating does not comply with it for carbon dating does not allow for the right of light to subside by the tube of the carnel which is about the right of man to allow for mistakes when they happen. Carbon dating is not accurate and does not see but feels its way like blind man does.

Egypt is interesting with many questions but one is who do you see in the tower and that is wrong but not right for you see no one if you do not look and no Egyptian does for it is Saintly no to and to with hold the information is better than knowing it to them when they prey and that is so to stop them from seeing that they are inferior now that they are known for being in the wrong about Christ and his existence not as the Son of God but as the man known as Ibsah in the Koran when they wrote it all those years ago, the Egyptians did, not Mosel of Tarnia as some suppose but the man known as Ibrahim the Great of Mosul and waiting for me is Kate so Bye!

Instead of Carbon dating we should be using the Epillimar of Road which is about how to make the tar in jeans available to man through the regeneration of time and that means allowing the decay of matter to time the arrival of man and not the start of good things like mankind which is a lot later, about 10 BC or ten thousand and fifty years our time before Christ, in Egypt where they built the pyramids out of rocks that stood there and then made them into stone without moving them and put them there using the long end of books called the reals of time in the Bible under J for John and James the First of Iscariot. They made them into stones to dissemble them to take them away but they never did.

To come: How does an animal or man come to be born from plants?

It takes a lot of thinking about but if you think about the word of God called the Realisation of Time you will see it there, about the work of man in the group of vowels called ART or Art which is about the work of many to make one and that is what it is – the work of many plants, all different and their work which is multiplying at extraordinary rate that makes man talk to them about themselves and so conscience is born and that makes man in a shape called the rea of time or the right of one according to the Bible and that is all for now except to say it is good to know you all you 500 on my USS feed.

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