Bioman

Bioman

I have been writing on this site for a decade close, wondering what comes next! I have great fun writing flash and I have found I can read colours too, so have entered poetry slams in London occassionally. Thanks for joining me and please be kind. Bioman

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On the hole in the ozone layer

We NEED a hole in the ozone layer because that is where water is made. On the other hand CFC’s are non reclaimable and in limited supply so it is better not to use aerosols to preserve what we have such as helium gas.

Paper Six as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO-SENSORS AND MICRO-SIZED ATTACHMENT DEVICES

BRUCE EDWARD SAUNDERS Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF BATH

E-MAIL: brucesaunders23@hotmail.co.uk

Title: The micro-design of hooked biological attachment mechanisms and soft robotics – a Biomimetic approach.

Abstract:

Hooked attachment mechanisms are a subset of all Biological Attachment Mechanisms and a useful starting position for experiments on the imaging of all biological attachment mechanisms such that they can be adopted in the engineering domain. A hook has an overhang which makes the imaging and transfer to .stl format a challenge, a test that once passed, allows for the further imaging of attachment mechanisms of all shapes and of differing materials. Confocal microscopy seems to have solved the issue so that it is now possible to move from the attachment mechanism directly to the finished model without user interference [1]. Here, the work to-date is summarised, imaging cellulose and chitin hooks so that the process can move forward to other attachment devices of interest such as the mating parts of sexual organs in insects or other biological sub-structures that are not hooked. Progress is reported to have been made into the development of chitin nano-tubules so clearly there is hope that this work will yield a standard for mechanical attachment mechanisms of soft tissues or materials that can interact safely with human flesh with medical applications.

Keywords: hooks, probability, scaling effects, biomaterials.

INTRODUCTION

This is a review article of the three papers published in the Springer-Open journal, “The Journal of Robotics and Biomimetics” in a special issue on nano-/micro-robotics under the following titles:

1. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms— Arctium minus part 1 [2]

2. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms: imaging cellulose and chitin part 2 [3]

3. Micro-design using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 [1]

The title of part 3 above displays the underlying motive behind the exploration of the detail of papers 1 and 2. It accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [4], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. [5] goes some way to describing this technology transfer.

The first view was that it was unsuitable to study with available technology. The decision was made to proceed with the use of a confocal microscope instead of light microscopy. Subsequently it has become possible only through the work of Hirt et al [6], by their work on a layered manufacturing device that can accept .tiff files as input and produce form. Now a hook can be manufactured at a 1:1 scale to the specimen that is to be reverse engineered and that means that designers are on the brink of being able to make things that are of use, in the micro-realm (of the order of 10-100 microns in size). It all began with the discovery that it was possible to image one of the hooked probabilistic fasteners under laser light, namely the cellulose hook of burdock (Arctium minus). Therefore the work continued with the chitinous growths of the bee and the grasshopper (Apis mellifera and Omocestus viridulus) tarsii [3]. This encounter with luck was able to make true the theory that the use of the microscope could be for the imaging of a specimen and then the transfer of data directly to a layered manufacture device that was suitable, namely the work of Hirt et al. The point of this imaging was to use it to describe the group of probabilistic fasteners as a number, namely one for the hook, two for the attachment mechanism of the grasshopper O. viridulus with two hooks, and three for the double set of hooks, namely A. mellifera with a separating arolium, irrespective of component material.

The chance of being on top of a specimen structure available without travelling was immense, as these were all available at the University of Bath which is set in the countryside of Western England. Particularly the burdock which is used (apparently) as the basis of Velcro but it is concluded this is without fundament and it seemed better to use it than to use the others (see below), as it will be shown, for the production of a new hook, a multi-use flat structure of multiple hooks that could be used without being entirely known, as per its value and knowledge. i.e. if it is to be the one to be imitated then it needs to be studied more now so that it can be manufactured.

Caption:

Figure 1: An Arctium minus (commonly known as burdock) fruit showing milli-metric scale. [1]

In Part 1 of the investigation [3], the cellulose hooks of burdock revealed a scaling effect [5] under loading. This is because the hook un-rolls as it is loaded until the radius of curvature is increased in size at fracture, in a similar manner in which a length of iron chain cannot be horizontally loaded until it is pulled straight without failing. The material is simply not as stiff as it would appear in the sketch of the structure for analytical purposes with its Newtonian assumptions and its properties vary under conditions, such as its state of dessication.

The reasons for this have been considered but not concluded as of yet, requiring further inspection of the material properties. All the natural cellulose hooks studied in the literature, Agrimonia eupatoria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium aparine, and Geum urbanum as well as Arctium minus, have been described in terms of their originating structures [2][8].

StomatalBractCarpel
C.lutetiana G.aperine A.eupatoriaA.minusG.urbanum

Caption:

Table 1: Grouping the cellulose, probabilistic, frictional and long-shafted hooks according to originating structure. [2] and [8][9].

The cellular complexity obviously plays a part and from [2] the micro-fibril strengthening of the structure must play a part too, but this does not satisfy the Newtonian equations of static analysis used for hooks of a larger size. This is an exciting find since it suggests that there may be differing laws governing the behaviour of structures at this level other than standard analysis, rather in the way that the behaviour of fluids differ under different flow conditions [10] governed by the energy equation. Therefore the sense is that it is best to mimic the morphology exactly in order to yield optimal performance and maximum attachment strength when fastened, through fiction and mechanical attachment, bearing in mind that a hook must be paired with a substrate.

AIM

The aim therefore of [1] through [3] was to develop a methodology whereby a Universal micro-robotic frictional probablistic attachment mechanism can be derived such that its performance can be modelled graphically, using Biomimetic principles and such that the methodology can be applied to other, more complex attachment mechanisms in the future. It is called a Universal Foot after the fact that a human foot is a frictional probabilistic attachment mechanism and because its performance is to be modelled graphically for design, performance, material, quality and other parameters, its universal qualities.

METHOD

Arctium minus is Class 0. Using copper, cheap and therefore available to mass production, it regarded to be the best fit for the solution of making a reproduce-able hook that will sustain in making it to the end of the product lifecycle. See [1] again for the details of the imaging and deposition process. A sample hook was placed under a single phase confocal microscope and recorded (see Figure 2). It was digitised and loaded into Solidworks (c) and analysed (see Figure 3).

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

Caption:

Figure 2: 1 – 20 The individual z-axis scan .tif files that make up the stereogram of the burdock hook (the scale bar defines 200 microns, Dr I Jones October 2002). [3]

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used to develop further since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications, and its coating of biologically inert stainless steel.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a testrig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electrodeposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [11] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

Caption:

Figure 3: The maximum deformation under loading. A point load at the tip, constrained at the base along the flange. There is nothing unexpected about the mode of deflection which reflects static Newtonian loading. This image is constructed using 2-D digitising due to the Nature of the available technology. [2]

Within the constraints of Nachtigal’s classifications [9], three hooked classes have been imaged on a confocal microscope [2] and all that remains is to pass the data to the mechanism of [6] to produce prototypes for testing. In a manner of regard, essentially multiple Class 0 hooks have been assembled in an array as a collective or field (see Figure 4). They are shaped as per the cellulose form of the burdock hook which is simple and shows no stress modifications, with a tapered tip. Manufactured from copper, their attributes have yet to be discovered but it is hoped that it will yield an attachment device that will succeed in vertical assent via quadrupedal locomotion. It will be designed to be multi-use, temporary and permanent, probabilistic and frictional. Its physical properties will of course differ not least for copper’s well-known capacitance to pass electric current and its magnetic properties.

Caption:

Figure 4: A zipper configuration in isometric view. This illustrates the possibilities of a composite formation of long-shafted hooks acting a coordinated fashion. The point being illustrated here is that although we are seeking a Universal “foot”, it is as likely to look like a foot as a drone looks like a hummingbird. [1]

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterials seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 5: The design space of attachment mechanisms. Micro-attachment mechanisms must find a space here. [12]

Figure 5 shows a design space for fasteners, without microfasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet.

REFERENCES

1. Saunders B E, Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms-imaging cellulose and chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

2. Saunders B E, A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015:2:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-015-0028-5

3. Saunders B E, Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – part 3. J. Robot. Biomim. 2016:3:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-016-0040-

4. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, (1992) , pp. 474–530

5. Gorb SNBeutel RGGorb EVJiao YKastner VNiederegger SPopov VLScherge MSchwarz UVötsch W. Structural design and biomechanics of friction-based releasable attachment devices in insects. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Dec;42(6):1127-39. doi: 10.1093/icb/42.6.1127

6. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. DOI:10.1002/adma.201504967.

7. Labonte DFederle W. Scaling and biomechanics of surface attachment in climbing animals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Feb 5;370(1661):20140027. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0027.

8. Gorb E, Gorb SN Contact separation force of the fruit burrs in four plant species adapted to dispersal by mechanical interlocking. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2002;40:373–81

9. “Biological Mechanisms of Attachment, The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction and Adhesion”, W Nachtigall, 1974translated by M A Biederman-Thorson, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-06550-4

10. Rolandi MRolandi R. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications, Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 May;207:216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2014.01.019. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

11. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L, The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

12. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Copyright B E Saunders (2016)

Paper Five as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control 2021

Title: The micro-design of hooked biological attachment mechanisms and soft robotics – a Biomimetic approach.

Abstract:

Hooked attachment mechanisms are a subset of all Biological Attachment Mechanisms and a useful starting position for experiments on the imaging of all biological attachment mechanisms such that they can be adopted in the engineering domain. A hook has an overhang which makes the imaging and transfer to .stl format a challenge, a test that once passed, allows for the further imaging of attachment mechanisms of all shapes and of differing materials. Confocal microscopy seems to have solved the issue so that it is now possible to move from the attachment mechanism directly to the finished model without user interference [1]. Here, the work to-date is summarised, imaging cellulose and chitin hooks so that the process can move forward to other attachment devices of interest such as the mating parts of sexual organs in insects or other biological sub-structures that are not hooked. Progress is reported to have been made into the development of chitin nano-tubules so clearly there is hope that this work will yield a standard for mechanical attachment mechanisms of soft tissues or materials that can interact safely with human flesh with medical applications.

Keywords: hooks, probability, scaling effects, biomaterials.

INTRODUCTION

This is a review article of the three papers published in the Springer-Open journal, “The Journal of Robotics and Biomimetics” in a special issue on nano-/micro-robotics under the following titles:

1. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms— Arctium minus part 1 [2]

2. A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms: imaging cellulose and chitin part 2 [3]

3. Micro-design using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3 [1]

The title of part 3 above displays the underlying motive behind the exploration of the detail of papers 1 and 2. It accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [4], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. [5] goes some way to describing this technology transfer.

The first view was that it was unsuitable to study with available technology. The decision was made to proceed with the use of a confocal microscope instead of light microscopy. Subsequently it has become possible only through the work of Hirt et al [6], by their work on a layered manufacturing device that can accept .tiff files as input and produce form. Now a hook can be manufactured at a 1:1 scale to the specimen that is to be reverse engineered and that means that designers are on the brink of being able to make things that are of use, in the micro-realm (of the order of 10-100 microns in size). It all began with the discovery that it was possible to image one of the hooked probabilistic fasteners under laser light, namely the cellulose hook of burdock (Arctium minus). Therefore the work continued with the chitinous growths of the bee and the grasshopper (Apis mellifera and Omocestus viridulus) tarsii [3]. This encounter with luck was able to make true the theory that the use of the microscope could be for the imaging of a specimen and then the transfer of data directly to a layered manufacture device that was suitable, namely the work of Hirt et al. The point of this imaging was to use it to describe the group of probabilistic fasteners as a number, namely one for the hook, two for the attachment mechanism of the grasshopper O. viridulus with two hooks, and three for the double set of hooks, namely A. mellifera with a separating arolium, irrespective of component material.

The chance of being on top of a specimen structure available without travelling was immense, as these were all available at the University of Bath which is set in the countryside of Western England. Particularly the burdock which is used (apparently) as the basis of Velcro but it is concluded this is without fundament and it seemed better to use it than to use the others (see below), as it will be shown, for the production of a new hook, a multi-use flat structure of multiple hooks that could be used without being entirely known, as per its value and knowledge. i.e. if it is to be the one to be imitated then it needs to be studied more now so that it can be manufactured.

Caption:

Figure 1: An Arctium minus (commonly known as burdock) fruit showing milli-metric scale. [1]

In Part 1 of the investigation [3], the cellulose hooks of burdock revealed a scaling effect [5] under loading. This is because the hook un-rolls as it is loaded until the radius of curvature is increased in size at fracture, in a similar manner in which a length of iron chain cannot be horizontally loaded until it is pulled straight without failing. The material is simply not as stiff as it would appear in the sketch of the structure for analytical purposes with its Newtonian assumptions and its properties vary under conditions, such as its state of dessication.

The reasons for this have been considered but not concluded as of yet, requiring further inspection of the material properties. All the natural cellulose hooks studied in the literature, Agrimonia eupatoria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium aparine, and Geum urbanum as well as Arctium minus, have been described in terms of their originating structures [2][8].

StomatalBractCarpel
C.lutetiana G.aperine A.eupatoriaA.minusG.urbanum

Caption:

Table 1: Grouping the cellulose, probabilistic, frictional and long-shafted hooks according to originating structure. [2] and [8][9].

The cellular complexity obviously plays a part and from [2] the micro-fibril strengthening of the structure must play a part too, but this does not satisfy the Newtonian equations of static analysis used for hooks of a larger size. This is an exciting find since it suggests that there may be differing laws governing the behaviour of structures at this level other than standard analysis, rather in the way that the behaviour of fluids differ under different flow conditions [10] governed by the energy equation. Therefore the sense is that it is best to mimic the morphology exactly in order to yield optimal performance and maximum attachment strength when fastened, through fiction and mechanical attachment, bearing in mind that a hook must be paired with a substrate.

AIM

The aim therefore of [1] through [3] was to develop a methodology whereby a Universal micro-robotic frictional probablistic attachment mechanism can be derived such that its performance can be modelled graphically, using Biomimetic principles and such that the methodology can be applied to other, more complex attachment mechanisms in the future. It is called a Universal Foot after the fact that a human foot is a frictional probabilistic attachment mechanism and because its performance is to be modelled graphically for design, performance, material, quality and other parameters, its universal qualities.

METHOD

Arctium minus is Class 0. Using copper, cheap and therefore available to mass production, it regarded to be the best fit for the solution of making a reproduce-able hook that will sustain in making it to the end of the product lifecycle. See [1] again for the details of the imaging and deposition process. A sample hook was placed under a single phase confocal microscope and recorded (see Figure 2). It was digitised and loaded into Solidworks (c) and analysed (see Figure 3).

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

Caption:

Figure 2: 1 – 20 The individual z-axis scan .tif files that make up the stereogram of the burdock hook (the scale bar defines 200 microns, Dr I Jones October 2002). [3]

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used to develop further since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications, and its coating of biologically inert stainless steel.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a testrig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electrodeposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [11] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

Caption:

Figure 3: The maximum deformation under loading. A point load at the tip, constrained at the base along the flange. There is nothing unexpected about the mode of deflection which reflects static Newtonian loading. This image is constructed using 2-D digitising due to the Nature of the available technology. [2]

Within the constraints of Nachtigal’s classifications [9], three hooked classes have been imaged on a confocal microscope [2] and all that remains is to pass the data to the mechanism of [6] to produce prototypes for testing. In a manner of regard, essentially multiple Class 0 hooks have been assembled in an array as a collective or field (see Figure 4). They are shaped as per the cellulose form of the burdock hook which is simple and shows no stress modifications, with a tapered tip. Manufactured from copper, their attributes have yet to be discovered but it is hoped that it will yield an attachment device that will succeed in vertical assent via quadrupedal locomotion. It will be designed to be multi-use, temporary and permanent, probabilistic and frictional. Its physical properties will of course differ not least for copper’s well-known capacitance to pass electric current and its magnetic properties.

Caption:

Figure 4: A zipper configuration in isometric view. This illustrates the possibilities of a composite formation of long-shafted hooks acting a coordinated fashion. The point being illustrated here is that although we are seeking a Universal “foot”, it is as likely to look like a foot as a drone looks like a hummingbird. [1]

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterials seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 5: The design space of attachment mechanisms. Micro-attachment mechanisms must find a space here. [12]

Figure 5 shows a design space for fasteners, without microfasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet.

REFERENCES

1. Saunders B E, Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms-imaging cellulose and chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

2. Saunders B E, A biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015:2:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-015-0028-5

3. Saunders B E, Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms – part 3. J. Robot. Biomim. 2016:3:4. DOI10.1186/s40638-016-0040-

4. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, (1992) , pp. 474–530

5. Gorb SNBeutel RGGorb EVJiao YKastner VNiederegger SPopov VLScherge MSchwarz UVötsch W. Structural design and biomechanics of friction-based releasable attachment devices in insects. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Dec;42(6):1127-39. doi: 10.1093/icb/42.6.1127

6. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. DOI:10.1002/adma.201504967.

7. Labonte DFederle W. Scaling and biomechanics of surface attachment in climbing animals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Feb 5;370(1661):20140027. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0027.

8. Gorb E, Gorb SN Contact separation force of the fruit burrs in four plant species adapted to dispersal by mechanical interlocking. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2002;40:373–81

9. “Biological Mechanisms of Attachment, The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction and Adhesion”, W Nachtigall, 1974translated by M A Biederman-Thorson, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-06550-4

10. Rolandi MRolandi R. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications, Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 May;207:216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2014.01.019. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

11. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L, The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

12. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Copyright B E Saunders (2016)

Paper 4 as submitted to the Conference on Robotics and Control 2021

AUTHOR: BRUCE E SAUNDERS, Ph.D.

TITLE: A Biomimetic Study into the design of a Robotic Attachment Mechanism using confocal microscopy and layered manufacture.

ABSTRACT

The use of Biological Principles finds application in design at micron size where little research has been conducted. Here the use of laboratory techniques in confocal microscopy and layered manufacture makes it possible to advance a theory on the design of an attachment mechanism modelled on a bee tarsus. The tarsus of a British common bee is used and represents a first design into a Universal attachment mechanism for small robots to attach to a wall and the development of micro-devices such as brain implants.

KEY WORDS: Biomimetics, Design, Confocal Microscopy, Layered Manufacture, Knowledge Transfer, Biological Principles

INTRODUCTION

Industry is by its very Nature not green, as we invest energy to create a form of order that is opposed to the natural thermodynamic qualities of the environment. So to look to Biomimetics for a green technological solution is a naive fallacy and inhibiting to the very science of biomimetics where there are rules and principles to be obeyed but they are not limited to the green solutions others seem to propose.

It is about the principles of chemistry and physics, not the policy of a politician. It is about the modelling of a system, not the shaping of a world, which must be in other people’s hands. Nature is about chaos, not process, self-assembly without apparent direction or control system, and does not serve the human race. If a biomimetic solution is found to nuclear waste disposal from power plants, would you call it “green”? Or would you call it chemistry? Or physics? Is a mutation green?

This is a fundamental that is misunderstood by most writers as they adopt populist theories in order to sell, not knowing the true value of it as they ignore avenues open to research in other fields that must prove that biomimetics is useful to mankind but not secular. It does not hold that Intelligent Design is about Nature. It is about perception.

A new definition of Biomimetics could be “the modelling of biological processes”. This is a coverall for all biomimetic processes witnessed in the laboratory as well as organic processes due to Nature.

The Biomimetic studies of flight and adhesion can be considered as two different systems for analysis, as a dynamic and a static system respectively. To reverse engineer studying flight we must take Nature into the laboratory and study it in a manner that may be transferred to the manufacturing shop floor. This means a methodology needs to be developed that reliably establishes the trends of flight and its parameters.

It is simple to understand that robotic flight will require robotic control and the use of actuators. Once we understand the pattern of movement, we can model this through Simulink(c) to produce an integrated circuit that will do what we want i.e. produce the motions of flight. All we need therefore is a high speed projection of a bee in flight, digitising its wing flutter to mark changes in angle of attack and yawl etc.

Now that Hirt et al [1] have shown it possible to produce structures of the order of size and shape of real insect tarsii in copper, it should be possible to begin the inspection of the surface interactions between small hooks and their substrates.

The underlying hypothesis behind the exploration of the detail of papers [2] and [3] accepts the viability of using cladistic methods to arrive at a scenario where a structure that has survived the “evolutionary sieve” is selected, to quote Nicklaus et al [5], over the use of Linnaeus or other classification methods which can be seen as insignificantly better when it comes to evolutionary manifestations of properties and/or structures. In other words all evolutionary models are all imperfect and so it is that the solution must indeed be imperfect too if it is to reflect the true nature of the Natural World i.e. testing is necessary before any firm conclusions can be reached. The use of the hook is a not very interesting thing, relatively. But it is also the ideal way to start with the designing of micro-sized (~100micron) objects because of the over-hangs of the hooks, which are of the minimal complexities to test the programmer and they can be assembled into machine-like components for manufacture. Their origins are a little too old for one to understand their development since the designs are based in evolutionary theory, which is utilised in order to identify which structures are viable and of suitable length and strength to be of use in the manufacture of computer components to attach to PCB’s (printed circuit boards).

A UNIVERSAL FOOT FOR ATTACHMENT TO ALL SURFACES FOR A ROBOT

With respect to a Universal Foot it is impossible to measure its probability of fastening since there is a possibility that it may not hold the correct angle on the surface/substrate. That will be overcome with a hinge that will allow the foot to align with the ground according to its angle and not the angle of application. It therefore can be used by the military to develop further and so it is about to be since it has application to the frontier of technology and the use is yet to be completely foreseen, such as soft robotics, micro-robotics, biosensors, computer hardware, orthodontics and optical sensors through the use of copper which is a very known substance with qualities that have been researched and ascertained through its use as a strain gauge and other common applications.

It will be seen that there are a number of solutions to the problem of a Universal Foot and that means a test-rig will have to be devised such that it can measure the forces with which a hook attaches to a substrate and that is the way through to the end of the series such that each member of the group of probabilistic fasteners can be measured, of different biological materials as imaged in [3]. In the meantime it is possible to make deductions such that a design can be arrived at that resembles a caterpillar yet makes use of the hook of the burdock and the range of movement that requires needful thinking so that it can be measured. Once this is done we have a product which can be commercialised. Part 2 [3] contains the results of the experimentation to image cellulose and chitin and this will prove useful in the future when we consider a wide range of hooking and other mechanisms/devices since it will be in the interest of those continuing the study to know the difference between the two and whether they can use the data to make hooks that are biological such as those to attach to the stomach wall or the vessels of the heart since they bear cilia which makes them difficult to render in a stainless steel as with a stent. But when it is available it may be possible to make them from a biological material which does not dissolve such as the MIT device which, when swallowed, removes a watch battery from the stomach wall to avoid a ulcer forming there or to patch a wound, steered by magnetic fields and which is still in the experimental phase. It is made from pig’s sinew which is insoluble but which does not lend itself to electro-deposition of course so an alternative will need to be found. The electro-deposition of stainless steel has been investigated by Hasegawa et al [6] and it shows that an improvement has been made to the processing of an otherwise inert steel that does not corrode or “anodize” and it can be electro-deposited on copper. This will make the stainless steel coated copper relatively biologically inert.

AIM

To produce a study plan for the solving of one of Nature’s greatest questions: How does a bee stick to a wall?

APPARATUS

Layered manufacturing device as described in [1]

Confocal microscope (single or two phase)

METHOD

1. Examine a specimen of insect chitin under the confocal microscope, output in .tiff files.

2. Transfer output .tiffs to the layered manufacturing device to produce a sample of a reverse engineered tarsus as described in Figure [] below.

3. Test the result for adhesion with a flat frictionless substrate and others.

RESULTS

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27.

28. 29. 30.

Caption:

Figure 1: Images 1-30 are the sections of natural luminescence through a common bee tarsus using a single phase confocal microscope. (see [3])

DISCUSSION

For many years scientists have been studying the work done and methods of doing so in the animal world. The work being energy transfer and the methods, from walking to holding a stone as a hammer. It now has become possible to study the intimate details of the assembly of life and it is also becoming a useful aptitude to be able to make the correct decision with regards to design and this encompasses the system as well as the part itself which is being considered. So it becomes a necessary point to make that one can now physically reproduce to microns in accuracy and no longer is it necessary to stick to statistical methods of assessment and aspiration. Physical biology can now be measured at a micron level as can the performance of these structures, albeit in a metal. These metal structures have yet to be tested but their material composition shall add to the value of the design durability.

At a foundation has been a determined effort to move towards direct data transfer, from microscope image to layered manufacture, as it is called now. Because scaling effects exist, the non-Newtonian mechanical properties of the vast majority of hooked attachment mechanisms can only be mimicked and tested when manufactured at the same order of size.

CONCLUSION

The door is creaking open, upon the region of science and manufacturing technology called Microdesign. As never before the opportunity arises for manufacturing expansion into the realm of micron-sized structural designs that could benefit man through their use of their size. In the light of new developments into biomedical structures there is a need for stable materials at this scale to be used within biological systems.

The hook, as a shape of low-complexity, proved an excellent example to demonstrate the limits of current technology and its new abilities due to the work of Hirt et al [1]. In terms of 3-D data collection via laser scanning, resolution of an overhang is impossible in C++ programming terms unless one moves the head of the layered manufacturing device in which case complex shapes can be reproduced. Surface modelling via Canny Edge Detection methods does not provide for holes or overhangs in the first instance.

The set of all Biological hooks in Nature can be divided along lines of material, structure and function. When considering shape and form one must consider it surprising that all biomaterial seem able to form hook shapes and do. At the smallest scale, near atomic level and in the region where self-assembly occurs, there must be incentive to form these shapes which is a directed response to the environment. It could be that these early shapes, these hooks, were in fact invented by Life itself as a form of camouflage with dual purpose and thereby were able to be used to vary Life without threatening it. For the first, the very first curve or hook shapes on earth must have occurred in the rock material of the surface and other parts.

A crude mapping system is available to us at any time, much like a parts manufacturer would catalogue a system of related parts. But this is not the purpose of the research, which is into micro-design of which the hook-shape forms a complex challenge.

Caption:

Figure 2: This shows a design space for fasteners, without micro-fasteners included except in the form of gecko-feet and a macro-sized form of velcro (c). There must be a place for these new micro-fasteners that are being suggested, micro-designed after Natural attachments that rise into the empty space of high relative strength and high-reusability on the chart. A Universal Foot would have high adaptability and variable strength. [7]

This important work by Hirt et al has physical significance outside that of biomimetic applications. The output, in copper, has potential uses such as the brushes on micromachines.

REFERENCES

1. Hirt L, Ihle S, Pan Z, Dorwling-Carter L, Reiser A, Wheeler JM, Spolenak R, Vörös J, Zambelli T. Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Adv Mater. 2016;. doi:10.1002/adma.201504967.

2. Saunders B. Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Arctium minus part 1. J. Robot. Biomim. Special issue on Micro-/Nanorobotics. 2015;2:4.

3. Saunders B. Biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—imaging cellulose and Chitin part 2. J. Robot. Biomim. 2015;2:7. doi:10.1186/s40638-015-0032-9.

4. Saunders B., Microdesign using frictional, hooked, attachment mechanisms: a biomimetic study of natural attachment mechanisms—Part 3

5. Nicklaus, K. J. Plant, (1992) Biomechanics – An engineering approach to plant form and function (Chapter 10), Biomechanics and Plant Evolution, University of Chicago Press, pp. 474–530

6. Hasegawa M, Yoon S, b Guillonneau G, Zhan Y, Frantz C, Niederberger C, Weidenkaff A, Michlerad J, Philippead L The electrodeposition of FeCrNi stainless steel: microstructural changes induced by anode reactions Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 26375-26384 DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03744H

7. “Systematic Technology Transfer from Biology to Engineering” J F V Vincent and D L Mann, Phil. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A(2002) 360, pp 159-173

Addendum to Evolutionary Story

Only man has evolved. All other species on earth have not. They exist and did exist in their forms right back to the times of the dinosaur but in less numbers.

The current tiger did not evolve from the sabre-tooth tiger but the larger cat did not survive. The common tigers as we know them did exist at that time.

Only man has evolved.

Thew story of evolution is one of the evolution of man into a God over millions of years and it is still occurring.

Man exists and evolves through radiation absorbed through their feet like the Chinese believe. This radiation causes us to stand upright away from the source.

It does not matter that we are unable to make it to the end of the table for the end is here with us as we gather the root of our time and ask for it to be able to make us hungry for more evolution. Again it is about the right of all to be able to make it, not just some as we’re led to believe by “Survival of the Fittest” which is a philosophy, not a theory of evolutionary practice.

To be able to make it to the end of time we must be able to make it to the ends of our experience and that means all the uses of our time must be about the right of all and not the right of some and that means a lot of time spent using our mind not body to make all the real ones, the men and women of earth, understand that it is not about the right so much as the enduring fable not to make the other ones suffer for they are not about the man but about themselves and they do not die but live on in each other and fear man for their own good, not for the benefit of mankind as we suppose, to hunt and gather for food.

It takes a lot of time to make the conclusion that all man is about the right of all and that means a lot of time is spent not doing it but making it to the end of time and that means all the people in the world have time to make it ere and they know it too and that is why they say it to them and their people – do not hurt them but make them eager to move in a way that hurts no one and that includes the cows of the earth who need to be ab le to make it in the end and not here but there where they all see it too, in the eyes of men – death.

It takes a lot of time to explain it all but I believe that all the men of earth are about to write it out – that no one knows it but they are about as right as rain and it is about time that they all sure footed went to the end of time and asked for the right to be able to make them understand what it is they are doing to the planet – enabling it or destroying it.

I believe enabling it to travel to the Sun when it is able to make peace with the star it warms from within through the use of God as the Master in this planet of ours.

To use it though depends on the way we seek to make it here in the end and that is why they say it to them, not to make it but to ask when shall we begin to understand we are about to make ends meet through the use of technology, not the use of life and death as we suppose over the time we have spent here.

It takes a lot of tie to answer your questions so I pose one for you:

What does it take to make it in the end of time and what is it that makes you sure we are about to lose the battle with Earth, our planet, over survival?

Bruce

SONG FOR LUCY

Song for Lucy

I have a happy little family

My sister says we are all mafia

when she is National Front

She has a swastika tattoo’d above

her hairline

so what did I do

with this problem no-longer-a-child?

I am ANC and not a civilian so I put the

CID onto her in South Africa, in 2003.

Fucking hilarious.

Be warned poetry snatch!

(“Lucy” is a blogger and is none other than Carmen Plant also knonw as Carmen Jones of Bath where I live, her son Cassidy is National Front too, but he doesn’t want his Green friends to know that, what with his influential grandfather who is so vain he likes to be called Rob. And Rob slept with his daughter Carmen. As did Cassidy, who does not know his girl is Plain Clothes too. He has a swastika on the right side of his skull above the hairline too. And he wants to go to Hollywood!)

COPYRIGHT BRUCE E SAUNDERS com BRUCE P SAUNDERS com BRUCE CDF MORE 2020

My theory of Evolution and the planetary system called the Solar System GMT 18H00, 14.11.2020, location Salisbury, Wilts, U.K.

Brace yourself!

Once the Solar System was a binary system and the Earth was a gas giant.

It collapsed on itself and cooled leaving a monster of gas, water, sand and and the first chlorophyll, strings of plant like structures. The other planets of the system consist of co-planar pairs in a mathematical not linear, sense.

Or those that have some maths there is a transformation for each pair that would make them co-planar in a Cartesian sense.

The pairs are Mercury and Venus, Mars and Gemini, Pluto and Jupiter, Uranus and Saturn.

In order the transformations are:

  1. The tan of the moment around the planet Jupiter.
  2. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Earth.
  3. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Uranus.
  4. The tan of the moment around the Sun and Mars.

The earth started to spin and gravity formed. There were many Gods.

Then with gravity the Gods died with only One remaining. At the same time the sand sank and the first rock formed. The planetary core is made up of gold, cesium and iron.

The radiation that triggers Evolution comes from beneath our feet, not the Sun.

The Natural kingdom of Earth evolved. And then Man evolved. With this One God.

One day Man will evolve into another God.

There is more but this is the gist.

May I say further that the Lutherans were a curse on the Romans who they saw as pagans.

Whereever you find a Lutheran church it was built on a site of Roman remains.

Bruce E Saunders com Bruce P Saunders com Bruce CDF More

COPYRIGHT Bruce E Saunders 2020

Proposals for research into Biomimetics 01.05.2020

  1. Further investigations into the Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Biological Hooks in Nature. This topic requires further research, into the variety of shapes and strata that should be investigated to produce a full mapping of biological attachment mechanisms. A visit to collections such as those at the Natural History Museum should yield plenty of specimens.
  2. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Spinerets in Nature. The production of spider silk has already been investigated in one form. A further study of these structures should yield a variety of methods and silks.
  3. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Ear Drums in Nature. Dogs, cats, cows, horses, sheep….the list goes on as we study the structure and properties of eardrums and their sensors.
  4. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Eyes in Nature. Again. For the purposes of robotic sensors, we study eyes in situations for their properties and their environments. Fish, animals, spiders, insects…the emphasis is on soft Robotics and robotic sensors.
  5. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Claws in Nature. Of keratin, these provide a larger specimen of hook for investigation.
  6. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Reproductive Organs in Nature. Reproduction in Nature needs study with an ambition of generating ideas for other forms of life.
  7. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Bat’s Ears in Nature. A larger specimen such as the fruit bat could be selected for intense study. Sensors.
  8. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Shark skin in Nature. A biomimetic study has not been carried out.
  9. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Shark Fins in Nature. Again a biomimetic study has not been carried out.
  10. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Snake Fangs in Nature. For the purposes of sensors and skin adhesion, a Biomimetic study.
  11. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of Snake Skin in Nature. As in 10 above.
  12. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of the mouths of Baleen Whales in Nature. If we could harvest plankton as an energy source….
  13. The Functional Ecology and Mechanical Properties of gills in Nature. A Biomimetic study to produce sensors for assessing water purity and salinity.

COPYRIGHT Bruce E Saunders 2020

Textbook on Soft Robotics

I have been published in the following textbook on Soft Robotics:

https://www.scirp.org/book/DetailedInforOfABook.aspx?bookID=2584

“Advances in Biomimetic Robotics”

By H.L.Galiana, McGill University,  Montreal,  Canada

ISBN: 978-1-61896-641-4

SEMINAR – iROBOT 2020 JUNE 22 2020

I presented a webinar on the application of layered manufacture and confocal microscopy to manufacture a robotic attachment mechanism last Saturday with some success.  I was the only British representative.

All my posts so far including some fun and not so fun

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